Three Gods A, B, and C are called, in no particular order, True, False, and Random. True always speaks truly, False always speaks falsely, but whether Random speaks truly or falsely is a completely random matter.

Your task is to determine the identities of A, B, and C by asking three yes-no questions; each question must be put to exactly one God. The Gods understand English, but will answer all questions in their own language, in which the words for yes and no are “da” and “ja”, in some order. You do not know which word means which.

1. It could be that some God gets asked more than one question (and hence that some God is not asked any question at all).
2. What the second question is, and to which God it is put, may depend on the answer to the first question. (And of course similarly for the third question.)
3. Whether Random speaks truly or not should be thought of as depending on the flip of a coin hidden in his brain: if the coin comes down heads, he speaks truly; if tails, falsely.
4. Random will answer “da” or “ja” when asked any yes-no question.

What would your three questions be?

There is a row of soldiers that is 1km in length and they walk with a constant speed in a straight line, in one direction.

All the way at the end walks a messenger. He has to bring a message to the captain walking all the way at the beginning of the row.

The messenger starts walking past the soldiers and immediately turns around when arriving at the captain and walks back to the end of the row. When the messenger is back at the end, the whole group of soldiers have traveled a distance of 1 km.

The soldiers and captain are walking at the same constant speed. The messenger (walking faster then the soldiers) is also walking a a constant speed.

You don’t know anything about time or speed. How far did the messenger travel from the end of the row to the beginning and back?

4 criminals are caught and are to be punished. The judge allows them to be freed if they can solve a puzzle. If they do not, they will be hung. They agreed.

The 4 criminals are lined up on some steps (shown in picture). They are all facing in the same direction. A wall separates the fourth man from the other three.

So to summarise :
Man 1 can see Man 2 and Man 3.
Man 2 can see Man 3.
Man 3 can see none of the others.
Man 4 can see none of the others.

The criminals are wearing hats. They are told that there are two white hats and two black hats. The men initially don’t know what colour hat they are wearing. They are told to shout out the colour of the hat that they are wearing as soon as they know for certain what colour it is.

They are not allowed to turn round or move. They are not allowed to talk to each other. They are not allowed to take their hats off.

Who is the first person to shout out and why?

Five children were playing kickball. One of the five broke a window. When questioned about the incident, each child made three statements of which two were true and one was false. The statements are given below.

Joe:
1. I didn’t do it.
2. Sally will tell who did it.
3. One of us is in big trouble.

Matt:
1. Joyce did it.
2. I didn’t do it.
3. I don’t even like to play kickball.

Vince:
1. I didn’t do it.
2. Joyce and I are good friends.
3. Sally doesn’t know who did it.

Joyce:
1. Matt lied when he said I broke the window.
2. I never saw Vince before today.
3. I never broke a window in my life.

Sally:
1. I saw Joyce break it.
2. I didn’t break the window.
3. I want to go home.

Who broke the window?

A wealthy wise old woman feared that her daughter was lazy and, as a result, rather stupid. When the old woman died, her will stipulated that her assets were to be liquidated and a check was to be written for the full amount.

The check was to be placed in one of three envelopes. The other two envelopes would contain a blank piece of paper. If the daughter could determine from the writing on the envelope which envelope contained the check, she would inherit her mother’s fortune. Otherwise, the fortune would go to the old woman’s favorite charity for animals.

The daughter was not allowed to touch the envelopes. Her decision had to be made based on the writing on the envelopes. The daughter was told that only one envelope had a true statement and that the other two statements were false.

The envelopes had the following writing:
1. This envelope does not have the check.
2. This envelope has the check.
3. The second envelope does not have the check.

Which envelope should the daughter pick?